The Hidden Jewel – Form 2555- Foreign Earned Income Exclusion’s Other Cousin
December 30, 2018
by: Marc J. Strohl, CPA, Protax Consulting Services Inc.
Click here for PDF version.
The goal of this article is to provide a comprehensive checklist of information for the U.S. person to
consider prior to accepting an assignment outside the U.S. This article is not designed to teach you the
technical competence required to perform self compliance; however it will certainly arm you with the
knowledge to determine if your U.S. tax preparer knows all that they should know to provide you with
technically competent professional services.
The Foreign Housing Exclusion (HE) or Deduction (HD):
In addition to the FEIE, there is a little known hidden jewel, the Foreign Housing Exclusion (HE) for employed persons or the Foreign Housing Deduction (HD) for self-employed persons. In addition to the above FEIE of $105,900 for 2019 ($103,900 for 2018, $102,100 for 2017, $101,300 for 2016, $100,800 for 2015, $99,200 for 2014, $97,600 for 2013, $95,100 for 2012, $92,900 for 2011 and $91,500 for 2010), there is also an opportunity to augment this basic earned income exclusion (FEIE) by an overseas taxpayer’s reasonable (but not lavish or extravagant) Qualified Foreign Housing expenses. Qualified Foreign Housing expenses are typically much higher than a taxpayer’s taxable employer paid housing income, allowance, or quarters.
Further ‘actual’ qualified foreign housing expenses should never be confused with employer paid housing income, allowances or quarters. One is an actual expense or outlay, the other simply an element of compensation.
The nice feature of the HE or HD is that the list of qualified housing expenses are clear and well established and include: Rent, Fair Market Value (FMV) of employer provided housing, foreign real-estate or occupancy taxes, TV taxes, utilities (but not telephone), real or personal property insurance, “key” money or other similar nonrefundable deposits paid to secure a lease, repairs and maintenance, furniture rental, temporary living expenses and residential parking.
However, the truly astonishing feature about the HE or HD is that it does notmatter who pays for these qualified housing expenses. Regardless of whether the employee directly pays for these costs or the employer directly pays (or reimburses the employee), these costs are still includable as Qualified Foreign Housing costs for determining the HE or HD. This is due to the fact that employer directly paid or reimbursed costs may need to be included in the taxpayer’s employment income, since they are considered an element of taxable compensation as they relate to personal living expenses.
However housing costs for the convenience of the employer on the employer premises, such as in a mancamp are not considered taxable compensation. These type of arrangements may also include a safety or security element.
Effective January 1, 2006, as amended by IRC Sec. 515 of the Tax Increase Prevention and Reconciliation Act of 2005 (TIPRA), this new law provides for two changes regarding the HE and HD:
- the base housing amount (or deductible) representing the amount that needs to be exceeded before any qualified housing costs are excluded or deducted, effective January 1, 2019, has risen from $45.55 per day or $16,624 for a full 365 days for 2018to$46.42 per day or $16,944 for a full 365 days for 2019, representing 16% of the amount of the FEIE or $105,900 for 2019 ($103,900- for 2018).
- further TIPRA has placed an overall effective cap on the total qualified housing costs eligible for consideration for either the HE or HD, at 30% of the FEIE of $105,900 for 2019 ($103,900 for 2018) or for 2019 $87.04 per day or $31,770 for a full 365 days (30% * $105,900). For 2018- $85.40 per day or $31,170 for a full 365 days (30% * $103,900). This cap had not existed prior to January 1, 2006.
Therefore, the maximum excludable or deductible qualified housing expenses is the difference between the cap of $31,770 less the deductible base housing amount of $16,944, which equals $14,826 or $40.62 per day for a full 365 days.
Further to the ratification of TIPRA, the IRS continues to issue IRS Notice(s) for 2018 Notice 2018-33 (issued April 23,2018) replaced by 2018-44 (issued May 2, 2018), (for 2017- IRS Notice 2017-21, issued March 13,2017)– which allows for certain cities (of 52 countries worldwide) with very high housing costs a higher overall exclusion cap, effectively overriding the 30% limitation on the FEIE or $31,770 cap. Until the 2019 IRS Notice is issued assumingly in March or April of 2019 for the 2019 tax year we will continue to apply the 2018 Notice to 2018 tax year. When the 2019 Notice is issued we may elect to apply the 2019 Notice adjustments to the 2018 tax year, in lieu of the adjusted 2018 Notice adjustments (Notice 2018-44), if the 2019 Notice limitations are higher. Please consult us on a list of these cities and amounts separately.
Other Interesting Form 2555- FEIE, HE and HD, Form 1116- FTC and General Facts:
- These exclusions- FEIE, HE and HD are elective, and should not be used when they trigger income inclusion. This would occur, for example where Schedule C expenses outstrip income and these expenses are added back to actually create income.
- The HE and HD are both subject to a base deduction or “Housing Norm” which for 2018 is $45.63 per day based upon 365 days (2017- $44.76 per day based upon 365 days). So, if in 2018 the taxpayer were abroad a full 365 calendar tax year the taxpayer would first need to deduct $16,656 prior to any of the Foreign Qualified Housing Costs counting towards the HE or HD.
- Theoretically, if the taxpayer has no U.S. source income, then using the FEIE, HE, HD and FTC, their U.S. tax liability should be NIL.
Marc J. Strohl, CPA is a Principal at Protax Consulting Services Inc.
He may be reached at: Tel: (212) 714-1805, Fax: (212) 714-6654
Web site: www.protaxconsulting.com